Transplantation refers to the transplantation of organic material in the medicine. A graft may consist of cells, tissues, organs or organ systems such as finger or hand. Transplantation is compared with the implant, wherein the organic material instead of artificial implants are placed in the body, such as prostheses.


The term "Transplantation medicine" has been introduced by Rudolf Pichlmayr (1932-1997), a leading German transplant physician.
A transplant is classified according to origin, location and function of the graft:

Type of transplantation
-Autologous or autogenous transplantation: donor and recipient are the same person, the transplant is seen here autoplasty. Many of autologous transplants are located in the area of plastic surgery. But also, for example, the relief of a coronary artery by a body's leg or arm artery (coronary artery bypass) belongs to this.
-Syngeneic or isogenic transplantation: donor is the identical twin, ie, donor and recipient are genetically identical. It can therefore be dispensed with in the syngeneic as well as in autologous transplantation described above on the administration of immunosuppressants (the side effects of these drugs are considerably).
-Allogeneic transplantation: donor belongs to the same species. Old name: homogeneous transplantation. see also: living donation.
-Xenogeneic transplantation: donor belongs to a different kind (eg porcine valve.). Old name: heterogeneous or heterologous transplantation.
-Alloplastic Transplantation: here is an artificial material, in other words, an implant, placed in the body. Since they are not here to organic material, the alloplastic transplantation is no longer assigned to the transplants in the narrower sense as defined shown in the introduction.

-Isotope transplantation: place and fabric is identical (E.g. Inselzelltransplantation)
-Orthotope transplantation: local consensus (such as heart transplants)
-Hetero Tope transplantation: no local match (E.g. kidney transplant)

Graft function
-Allovitale transplantation: graft is fully functional and vital
-Allostatische transplant: the function of the organ is limited
-Auxiliäre transplantation: graft to support a sick body
-Substitutive transplantation: a functionless organs to replace

Graft harvesting
The removal of the graft is also called Explantation.

post-mortem transplant: the graft is taken an anonymous donor's brain death
Living organ transplantation: graft is taken from an appropriate healthy donor. Common in stem cells, kidney or partial liver transplant. But also parts of pancreas, intestines and lungs have already been transplanted after donation.

Multiple transplant
If a patient is not only organ recipients, but at the same time also an organ donor, this is referred to as a domino transplant. This happens when it - especially operational due - a healthy organ must be removed, which is then implanted to a third person.

Indications for transplantation

-Chronic renal failure: kidney transplantation
-Final stage of coronary heart disease, forms of heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Heart transplant
-Eisenmenger's syndrome: heart-lung transplantation
-Liver cirrhosis: liver transplantation
-Cystic fibrosis: lung transplantation
-Leukemia: bone marrow or stem cell transplantation
-Diabetes mellitus: pancreas or islet cell transplantation
-COPD: lung transplantation (allogeneic, orthotopic, substitutive)
-Bladder cancer: urostomy
-Breast Cancer: Breast Reconstruction
-Burns and injuries with tissue destruction: flap surgery, Motor replacement surgery, hand transplant, face transplant, Pollizisation
-Plastic Surgery: Microtia, hair transplantation, skull reconstruction
-Diseases and injuries of the cornea: Keratoplasty
-Sex reassignment surgery, testicular prosthesis
-Joint replacement: endoprosthesis
-Accidents with Dismemberment, as Transplantation of arms

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