Colorectal Cancer Treatment And Prevention

What is colorectal cancer ?

Colorectal cancer is a collective term for different types of cancer of the small intestine, large intestine and the rectum (rectal).

Small intestine cancer

Cancer of the small intestine is very rare. If swelling is found in the course of the small intestine, it is usually benign: lipomas (fat cells), neurofibromas (nerve cells), fibroma (connective tissue cells) and leiomyoma (muscle cells).

Colon cancer

Cancer of the colon is a common form of cancer. One in twenty people will be affected by this disorder throughout his life. If bowel cancer at a young age to do that can point to heredity. Often the patient from a family where earlier cancer is detected. If a first-degree relative (parent or child) has colon cancer, or have had, then the risk of getting it yourself two to three times increased. The earlier the diagnosis was established by the first-degree relative, the greater the risk. It also holds that the risk increases as more family members have the disease. The presence of many polyps is also a risk factor, as these polyps can degenerate malicious. Colorectal cancer increases sharply with age, it is especially common in people 50 years or older. In subjects aged 40-49 years happens at 50 individuals per 100,000 aged 60-69 years is increased to 330 per 100,000.

  • A normal body weight, ie, a BMI of 18.5 to 25.
  • Plenty of exercise / sport.
  • There is convincing evidence that regular consumption of red meat (meat from cattle, pigs, goats and sheep) and processed meats (such as ham and salami) increases the risk of cancer significantly. The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) has 263 studies in this area reviewed and recommends that people not eat more than 500 grams of red meat per week and avoid processed meat altogether.
  • There is convincing evidence that high-fiber diet, especially soluble fiber in many fruits, vegetables and legumes prevent the risk of colon cancer significantly reduced.
  • Limited intake of alcoholic beverages.

 is a collective term for different types of cancer of the small intestine Colorectal Cancer Treatment And Prevention

Prevention Campaign

Early detection
One of the possibilities to detect colon cancer is early research on blood loss in the stool. In the Netherlands, the Health Council on 17 November 2009 to the Minister of Health recommended to start with a screening agenda for bowel cancer in people between 55 and 75 years. The stool can be examined in the clinical chemical laboratory using an occult-blood test. It is expected by the Health would this screening could prevent 1400 deaths per year in the Netherlands. On February 16, 2010, the Minister in a letter to the President of the Lower House that it expects in the spring of 2011 to decide on whether to introduce a screening program. For now, there are not just budgetary problems but they still are not sure whether there is sufficient gastrointestinal liver doctors will be able to perform the number of bowel examinations which will bring this. In Flanders decided Minister Jo Vandeurzen early February 2012 it will start a screening agenda in 2014.

The symptoms of colon cancer are often nonspecific. Alarm Symptoms suggestive of colon cancer may indicate a change in bowel habit, unintentional weight loss and rectal bleeding. Rectal blood loss occurs in tumors that are close to the end of the gastro-intestinal tract, and is then back through the stool. Chronic (microscopic) blood loss from tumors at the beginning of the colon is usually goes undetected, often these patients with symptoms of anemia (anemia) in a doctor. Patients also often suffer from air build-up in the large intestine.

Colorectal cancer treatment

The most common treatments for cancer are:
  • Operation (surgery); If the cancer has not spread and not too deep in the intestinal wall ingrowth, there is a high probability of complete cure. In addition, there can be hidden when the intestine is created through a stoma tumor, to relieve symptoms.
  • Radiation therapy (radiotherapy), whether or not in combination with chemotherapy (treatment with drugs inhibiting cell division), is used in particular in tumors in the rectum. In most cases, a tumor that is too large to be reduced in size for surgical removal by means of radiation and chemotherapy, so that surgical removal is still possible. Also radiation, if there is no cure is possible, used to reduce the symptoms.
  • Chemotherapy is used in particular to treat metastasis to the liver and lungs. In the majority of cases no cure there is more than possible and the aim is to keep the symptoms under control as well as possible. Is there some metastases to lung or liver then there is sometimes still the possibility of using chemotherapy followed by surgery to remove the tumors.
Commonly used drugs are: 5-fluorouracil (Fluracedyl), oxaliplatin (Eloxatine, Oxalisin), folinic acid (Leucovorin, Rescuvolin), irinotecan (Campto), bevacizumab (Avastin).

Often, a combination of these treatment methods are needed. The choice and the order of the different treatments is dependent inter alia on the characteristics of the tumor, the stage of the disease, the age when colon cancer is determined, and the desires of the patient.

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