Causes And Treatment Of Muscle Spasms

What is a muscle spasm?

Muscle cramps or spasm is an involuntary, painful muscle tension. A common cause of muscle cramps is typical sports magnesium deficiency. The cause of muscle cramps at rest is usually a lack of calcium in the blood.

What causes muscle spasms?

Cramps have different causes such as mineral deficiencies (electrolyte imbalance, such. As magnesium deficiency or hypocalcaemia), metabolic disorders (eg. As diabetes mellitus), poor circulation, drug side effects, overuse of muscles or orthopedic causes (eg. As foot deformity). Often, a muscle spasm occurs without apparent cause.

A normal concentration of magnesium to potassium transport back into the cell, which is important for the completion of the action potential and the termination of the influx of calcium ions into the sarcomere. Magnesium is a physiological calcium channel blocker, which reduces the release of calcium into the interior of muscle cell. Missing magnesium, this can therefore lead to continuous, painful muscle contraction. Total Magnesium has a dampening effect on the neuromuscular system. It reduces the electrical excitability of the neuron and decreases the nerve. Accordingly, a low magnesium plasma concentration lowers the threshold of nerve and increases nerve.

As usually benign and many people known phenomenon can occur muscle cramps after overexertion of individual muscle groups and electrolyte disturbances. Frequently nocturnal leg cramps, also Krampus syndrome (deprecated) are called, formerly known as write cramps hand muscles. They can often be relieved by relaxation exercises or intake of magnesium. It may be better absorbed magnesium citrate in a connection from the body.

Some have a shortage of sodium chloride is the cause of cramps. Sodium chloride secreted increased by the sweat during exercise. A balance is necessary as an electrolyte deficiency against the extracellular space can shrink the nerve cells.

Likewise, a lack of potassium can (for example by excessive sweating) contribute to the development of convulsions. As an important electrolyte, it is for the control of muscle activity of significance (potassium deficiency, see hypokalemia).

There the hypothesis of a neuromuscular origin to the formation of muscle cramps is represented by numerous physicians alternative. Sporadic nocturnal muscle cramps, for example, appear to be caused by motor neurons. In some cases, also could be the aspect of fatigue (local or central) play a crucial role. Both the exact causes of muscle spasm as well as the resulting pain is not completely understood.

According to a study from 2004, the cause of muscle spasm in athletes could not, as in the literature suggested a lack of electrolytes are, but arise on the floor of a neuronal dysfunction in the sasaran muscle muscle spindles and the Golgiorganen.

Muscle spasm treatment

To solve the acute spasm full range of motion of the joint is to be realized, so that the muscle can shorten. This prevents the re-release of the tendon reflex. Then tighten the antagonist because it inhibits the spasmodic muscle on a recurrent neuron in the spinal cord. That is the example of the hamstrings (biceps femoris): hip stretch, bend knee passively; if a little better, knee stretch resistant. But even a massage of the affected muscle is often helpful for the pain and a contrast shower with hot and cold water.

For the treatment of painful muscle contractions are electrolyte-containing beverages and magnesium supplements available. Alternatively, quinine are used: pharmaceutically formulated as quinine, one of the peripheral muscle and is suitable for treatment and prevention. The daily dose for treatment of seizures should not exceed 200-400 mg.

In older people often occur nocturnal leg cramps. Preventive effect adequate fluid intake, a balanced diet rich in magnesium, light and regular exercise and stretching exercises.

Seizure types

Other seizure types are the cerebral seizures. Rapid succession cramps like a seizure are also called convulsions. They are typical of the epilepsy.

Tonic spasms (long-lasting) be the tetanus, the tonic Fazialiskrampf, the torticollis and occasionally observed in hysteria.

Most severely painful spasms of the smooth muscles of hollow organs (eg, gall bladder, bowel, bladder) are called colic. In connection with blood vessels, bronchi and the larynx is also called spasms, such as the vasospasm, bronchospasm or laryngospasm.

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