Anabolic Steroids Definition - What Are Anabolic Steroids ?

What are anabolic steroids?

Anabolic steroids, also called anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), its performance enhancing agents - even though they are taken from the official world trade - are gaining in popularity, especially among amateur athletes.


The discoverer of the synthetic steroids John B. Ziegler, as the team doctor he led in 1954 to the American weightlifter team in the World Championship in Vienna. After a Russian colleague had told him about the use of synthetic testosterone in their athletes he himself went to work and developed the product Dianabol, the mother of all steroids. Years later, however, he got the same athletes on the floor with symptoms such as an enlarged prostate, difficulty urinating, liver diseases and disorders of the testes.

Anabolic steroids are synthetic steroid derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. Testosterone is the principal male sex hormone which is produced in the testis and the adrenal cortex. It causes the secondary sexual characteristics and promotes the buildup of protein. Because of this effect it is often used as doping in sports. It is just like many other hormones made from cholesterol.

There are two different actions of steroids;
  • There are those that bind to the androgen receiver in muscle cells, after which they proceed to the conversion of proteins. This allows for the increase in the muscle mass.
  • The other steroids bind not or hardly to the androgen receptor but are unable to ensure that the muscle tissue is not broken down when the body glutamine seeks to remove from the muscles.
 also called anabolic androgenic steroids  Anabolic Steroids Definition - What Are Anabolic Steroids ?

Famous users
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger - former bodybuilder and actor, former governor of California.
  • Lance Armstrong - a former professional cyclist
  • Ben Johnson - sprinter, ran a world record in the 100 meters at the Olympic Games in Seoul
  • Marion Jones - athlete, has won multiple track and field events medals
  • Andre Agassi - tennis player, with multiple grand-slam titles
  • John McEnroe - tennis player, with multiple grand-slam titles
  • Alex Rodriguez - Baseball Player, highest paid baseball player in the United States
All have publicly admitted their use.

Anabolic steroids positive effects

  • Anabolic steroids cause an increased protein synthesis. Protein synthesis of man is in a constant balance of construction and demolition, steroids not only ensure better structure but also an inhibiting degradation.
  • The second most important feature is the stimulating effect on the red blood cells or hemoglobin. This leads to an increase in the oxygen capacity (VO2max), thus to a greater endurance.
  • Anabolic steroids and testosterone would also provide for an increase in glycogen storage. Based on animal experiments castrati showed a marked decrease in skeletal and cardiac muscle glycogen stores.
  • Further, is attributed to an immune stimulating effect anabolic agents, that is to say, a growth of the body's defense to infection.
  • Faster muscle recovery after a workout.
  • Testosterone creates a stimulation of growth hormone (STH) which makes for a higher calcium deposition in bones.
  • The psychological effects of steroids on athletes, what an incalculable positive effect can cause the performance potential of the athlete.
  • Heightened state of concentration (steroids are also used by students in the United States)

Anabolic steroids negative effects

Numerous scientific studies prove very serious side effects, especially cardiovascular. The risk of heart failure through the use of anabolic steroids increases. In one of the study were 17 bodybuilders who use steroids (t) and, 15 such a thickened heart muscle that there is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a very serious condition affecting exercise capacity and general well-being. Around 5% will die from this condition.

In case of excessive or improper use by women occur especially virilising effects, which are usually irreversible. It provides hirsutism, facial and body hair, deepening of the voice, disruption of the menstrual cycle and a significant reduction of the female sexual characteristics.

Use of steroids can cause:
  • Acne on the head, chest and back.
  • Development of breasts (gynecomastia) by estrogen formation
  • Liver tumors, cirrhosis and jaundice may occur (especially with an overdose of oral steroids, which are twice by the liver if ingested)
  • Pain in stomach and intestinal tract, and possible bleeding
  • Enlargement of the prostate gland in men (difficulty urinating, some 'anabolic athletes' probes need to urinate)
  • Occurrence of 'marks' in the skin by the phenomenally fast growing muscle
  • Swollen face by water retention (problems in osmoregulation)
  • Increased risk of heart disease
  • High blood pressure and decrease of the good cholesterol
  • In men testicles may temporarily adopt a smaller form if no precaution is being taken (proviron, pregnyl)
  • In men, it increases the risk of impotence.
  • Disturbances in blood clotting (thrombosis)
  • Chance of cataract
  • Hair Loss
People who have genetic disorders inherited from their parents can also get a history of these diseases. A property of steroids, therefore, is that it speeds up body functions. Genetics also play a role in the encounter of any negative properties.


Anabolic steroids can be administered in various ways, on the one hand, by an oral administration in the form of capsules (the androgen andriol) or pills, on the other side by means of an injection or application to the skin in the form of a gel. The oral intake of testosterone, even in large quantities, has less effect (as opposed to injections) on the body because the recorded testosterone is very rapidly metabolized in the liver in useless metabolites as androsterone and other ketosteroids, which then still end up in the urine will end. Oral administration in such a way is therefore not efficient. After all, it occurs two times through the liver before it arrives at the receptors. To avoid this metabolism of the liver will be added to the steroid is an alkyl, so that they pass through the liver in one piece come through. The duduk perkara with this addition to the steroids (17 or 17-AA alpha alkylated steroids such as fluoxymesterone, methyl testosterone, stanozolol) is that it heavily affect the liver (liver cancer, liver inflammation (hepatitis), death of the liver cells).

Therefore usually opted for the injection method. Steroids are injected directly into the muscle (into a vein can be lethal) and therefore do not have to first pass through the liver. Eventually they made harmless by the liver. With the aid of aspirate, there is less of a chance to inject into a vein. Aspirate is the retraction of the syringe after it is in the muscle tissue. If there is blood in the syringe, the needle is in a vein or artery. And safety considerations must then be injected in a different place.

Usually, an original steroid molecule mixed with an organic acid, which results in an ester. This ester is easily transported into the body where they can nest and slowly converted back into the original steroids.

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