Add Definition - What Is Attention Deficit Disorder ?

What is attention deficit disorder (ADD)?

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a disorder in which a greatly reduced ability to maintain attention in activities sufficient is present. According to general handbook for the classification of mental disorders, the DSM-IV, ADD is a subtype of ADHD (ADHD predomi- nantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-PI)), namely the so-called predominantly inattentive type, characterized by attention deficit disorder and concentration problems. ADD is more than ADHD has been associated with depression, anxiety disorders and poor performance. Behavioral problems are less in the foreground. Research shows that ADHD or ADD occurs in 1 to 4% of all children and that is certainly a third there as an adult still affects people. ADD and ADHD occur in people of all skill levels.

 is a disorder in which a greatly reduced ability to maintain attention in activities suff ADD Definition - What Is Attention Deficit Disorder ?


It is assumed that otherwise the functioning of the brains of ADD than that of non-ADD. People with ADD have a tremendous flow of thoughts so they often seem dreamy or uninterested in other people. Because of this stream of thought can concentrate hard on the issues relevant for the particular moment. The "filter" separating relevant from irrelevant things working properly. People with ADD are easily distracted, restless and often impulsive in their behavior. Characteristic of ADD is having several intense mood swings in a day. Also sleeping, forgetfulness, disorganization, a different sense of time and effort to maintain social contacts hear almost always. They are often hypersensitive to sound and picture impulses. ADD often have difficulty understanding a conversation in a larger group of people. It has been in that situation difficulty focusing on one conversation because it continues inadvertently focus on all the conversations that are going on. People with ADD describe this persoalan sometimes as "listening to a conversation on the radio, while the broadcast is accompanied by a lot of noise."

Sometimes ADD possess special skills related to the rapid combination of information and impressions, persoalan solving, empathy, creativity and spatial awareness. People with ADD can hyper focus in certain situations; it is extremely concentrated and unaware of what is happening around them. This high level of concentration can lead to the development of exceptional talents. Since many ADD have lower seizure threshold, they will in certain high-risk and crisis alert and function better, while others actually increases the risk of malfunction.

What causes attention deficit disorder

ADD is a collection of specific personality traits with a largely hereditary cause. It is not a trait or parenting mistake. ADD by scientists as a neurobiological disorder: there is increasing evidence that genetic and biological factors play a key role. In particular, a lack of, and / or imbalance in the presence of, two neurotransmitters in the motor cortex and in the prefrontal cortex of the brains is typical. In ADHD leads this deviation in the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine to inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. In ADD are hyperactive and impulsive behavior lesser extent present or entirely absent. It is common for children with ADHD, as they age, show less hyperactive and impulsive behavior and can be typed into their adult life as someone with ADD. ADHD, including the subtype ADD, is more common in men than in women.

Attention deficit disorder diagnosis

In the Netherlands the ADD diagnosis made based on a structured questionnaire and a concentration test and are, if desired, also family members or others involved invited for an interview. The outcome of the questionnaire and the interviews to give clarity about ADD. The research and diagnostics are generally performed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist.

For diagnosing ADD use the specific DSM-IV criteria for ADHD include hyperactivity.

One persoalan with these criteria is that one assumes that these complaints should be present in all areas of life such as housing, work or in other situations where the environment imposes certain requirements. Another point is that it is assumed that the symptoms are already present in the first seven years of life. However, in people with ADD in the infancy is not always properly recognized. Especially in adults who have grown up in a tolerant environment in the seventies, made attention deficit - and concentration problems are not always major problems. Therefore, they are sometimes difficult to recognize a standard investigation. Moreover, often the parents who are involved in such research already at a respectable age and their information is not always clear and precise. Since ADHD / ADD in more than 50% of the cases, is a result of inherited load, the chances are that one of the parents also has a form of ADHD. This means that differ in the family of origin of the general standard was not always perceived as a problem.

ADD in combination with dyspraxia is also called DAMP syndrome.

ADD / Attention deficit disorder treatment

While methylphenidate (Ritalin) has been the most commonly used agent, there are also other agents which can be employed, such as atomoxetine (Strattera) and certain antidepressants. In some cases, the dextro-amphetamine related to methylphenidate can be prescribed. Methylphenidate according to a proposed Directive of the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the European medicines authority, be used continuously from the beginning of 2009 should not exceed one year because there is too little research into the long-term effects. The EMA also states that more control is needed during the use in connection with the chance of problems in blood pressure and worsening of some mental disorders. Also, the growth in length and weight should be in the holes to be held. Methylphenidate treatment is initiated and monitored during treatment by a pediatrician taking into growth and possible side effects in the eye.

Therapeutic and adverse effects of medications can vary individually. This means that a medication advice is always tailor-made. Only physicians with special expertise in ADD should start drug therapy.

Experts believe that drug use by people with ADD and ADHD, in some cases, a form of self-medication, which involves adequate medical treatment no longer need.

Alternative cure
Some practitioners use neurofeedback (brainwave training) or set a special food pattern. Its effectiveness has not been demonstrated.

The history of ADD (Attention deficit disorder)

The behavioral problems that now have been labeled ADHD / ADD were first described in 1902 by British pediatrician George Still (1868-1941).

In 1937, the physician Charles Bradley worked (1902-1979) in a device difficult to handle boys. Instead of these young people through learning hard discipline to change their behavior, he decided to influence the behavior by administering them stimulant medications. He had already been discovered by accident that stimulant medications, which include was used as a means to lose weight, had a calming effect on people with certain complaints.

In 1947 it was reported that the behavioral problems were caused by minor damage in the brains; called minimal brain damage. From 1967 it became clear that there was no damage and the term minimal brain disfunction (MBD) was introduced. Since then, research into the disorder has boomed. It was thus discovered that there is not always the case of hyperactivity, but there is also a form of attention deficit alone - and concentration problems: the attention deficit disorder, or ADD. In the 1970s also came to light that ADHD is not the typical children's illness was who disappeared around puberty, but that about 60% even as adults continued to suffer from the symptoms. Despite the results of research were many lay people and experts often believe that ADD was an education persoalan that had no organic cause. In psychoanalytic circles one long held fast to the belief that ADD was a neurotic deviation and was caused because parents had less and less time and attention to their children.

A major breakthrough came in 1990 when it was discovered by comparing PET scans differences in brain activity between adults with AD(H)D and adults without AD(H)D. By MRI scans were detected in later research even larger differences. Moreover, from new genetic research that AD(H)D was a family disease that is hereditary for about 75%.

The term ADD (attention deficit disorder) in 1994 in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) formally changed in ADHD predomi- nantly inattentive (ADHD-PI), but is still often referred to as ADD in the vernacular. It is one of three subtypes of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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